Origins[ edit ] The name "slapstick" originates from the Italian batacchio or bataccio — called the " slap stick " in English — a club-like object composed of two wooden slats used in commedia dell'arte. When struck, the batacchio produces a loud smacking noise, though little force transfers from the object to the person being struck. Actors may thus hit one another repeatedly with great audible effect while causing no damage and only very minor, if any, pain. Along with the inflatable bladder of which the whoopee cushion is a modern variantit was among the earliest special effects.
Though merely speculative, these conjectures have revealed the existence of rustic regional dialect farces in Italy during the Middle Ages.
Professional companies then arose; these recruited unorganized strolling players, acrobats, street entertainers, and a few better-educated adventurers, and they experimented with forms suited to popular taste: The most famous early company was the Gelosiheaded by Francesco Andreini and his wife, Isabella ; the Gelosi performed from to Of the same period were the Desiosiformed into which Tristano Martinelli c.
The first mention of a company in France is in — The Gelosi, summoned to Blois in by the king, later returned to Paris, and the Parisians embraced the Italian theatre, supporting resident Italian troupes who developed additional French characters.
The Italian players were also popular in England, Spain, and Bavaria. Though there was some doubling of masks rolesmost players created their own masks or developed ones already established. This helped to keep a traditional continuity while allowing diversity. The scenario used symmetrical pairs of characters: The parents were clearly differentiated.
Pantalone was a Venetian merchant: Dottore Gratiano was, in origin, a Bolognese lawyer or doctor; gullible and lecherous, he spoke in a pedantic mixture of Italian and Latin. Other characters began as stock masks and developed into well-known characters in the hands of the most talented players.
The Capitano developed as a caricature of the Spanish braggart soldier, boasting of exploits abroad, running away from danger at home.
As Scaramouche, Fiorillo was notable for the subtlety and finesse of his miming. Columbinaa maidservant, was often paired in love matches with Arlecchino, Pedrolino, or the Capitano.
The zanni had already been differentiated as comic rustic and witty fool. They were characterized by shrewdness and self-interest; much of their success depended on improvised action and topical jokes. Arlecchino Harlequinone of the zanni, was created by Tristano Martinelli as the witty servant, nimble and gay; as a lover, he became capriciousoften heartless.
Pedrolino was his counterpart. As Pierrot, his winsome character carried over into later French pantomimes. The zanni used certain tricks of their trade: The rich verbal humour of the regional dialects was lost on foreign audiences.
Eventually the physical comedy came to dominate the performance, and, as the comic business became routine, it lost its vitality. As time went on, the actors stopped altering the characters, so that the roles became frozen and no longer reflected the conditions of real life, thus losing an important comic element.
Goldoni borrowed from the older style to create a new, more realistic form of Italian comedy, and audiences greeted the new comedy with enthusiasm.
It was taken from England to Copenhagenwhere, at the Tivoli Gardens, it still survives. Other national dramatic forms absorbed the comic routines and plot devices of the commedia. European puppet shows, the English harlequinade, French pantomime, and the cinematic slapstick of Charlie Chaplin and Buster Keaton all recall the glorious comic form that once prevailed.Modern Technique: This class focuses on torso articulation, the strong relationship between movement and music, physical coordination, and clarity of webkandii.com work, center work, and center combinations across the floor are utilized to develop a more versatile and varied approach to dance as an expressive and communicative art form.
Traditional commedia dell'arte is not about realism or creating well-rounded, three-dimensional characters, so most of the roles only have a couple traits to them around which the whole personality is .
Commedia Dell’Arte Commedia dell’arte is an improvised and unwritten form of theater, which is characterized by its dramatic and well-versed stock characters. This theatrical art form was established in the early 16th century, in the streets and marketplaces of Italy and promptly gained popularity and recognition rapidly throughout Europe.
Pierrot and Harlequin See Harlequinade. The classical pairing of the White Clown with Auguste in modern tradition has a precedent in the pairing of Pierrot and Harlequin in the Commedia dell'webkandii.comally, Harlequin's role was that of a light-hearted, nimble and astute servant, paired with the sterner and melancholic Pierrot.
Commedia dell Arte Performers made use of well-rehearsed jokes and stock physical gags, known as Lazzi and, as well as, of course, on-the-spot improvised and interpolated episodes and routines, called burle (singular burla, Italian for joke), usually involving a practical joke.
This webpage is for Dr. Wheeler's literature students, and it offers introductory survey information concerning the literature of classical China, classical Rome, classical Greece, the Bible as Literature, medieval literature, Renaissance literature, and genre studies.