Plan to model the chosen learning behavior oftentimes more than once and to be an active presence in the room, moving from student to student, pair to pair, to monitor, ask and answer questions, and reengage students who lose focus. Look over the text and, based on its difficulty and the readiness of your students, decide an appropriate interval Every paragraph?
Differentiated Instruction in the Content Areas: Recently, in early September, Sarah Armstrong, assistant superintendent of instruction for Staunton City Schools in Virginia, invited me to work on literacy with the art, music, and physical education teachers at Shelburne Middle School.
History and science teachers at Shelburne had begun to differentiate reading instruction in their classes. In a room off the main library, content teachers stored five to seven copies of books at diverse reading levels on topics they taught.
Often, I sense resistance when schools require that art, music, and phys. And here I was, accepting the challenge to work on reading and writing with those reluctant-to-incorporate-literacy teachers!
During the morning I had teachers dribble and pass a basketball, kick and pass a soccer ball, and list the vocabulary students needed to talk about these sports. We enjoyed a Readers Theater, an interview, and a radio play with sound effects. We Content area reading research paper word walls about basketball and soccer and the orchestra.
My goal throughout all of this was to get these teachers to see the connection between language and learning in a new way. So often, content teachers tell me, "I teach information and not reading and writing.
But that day I planned carefully, and I purposely engaged these teachers in talking to learn, in hands-on experiences that led to writing, and in reading and dramatizing to share information. In the gym were two huge word walls: Students in music were designing an illustrated guide to orchestral instruments.
Seventh- and eighth-grade art students were involved in a mini-unit on artists. Helping teachers make paradigm shifts like these can be challenging, but it is always joyful, energizing, and satisfying.
A Rationale for Differentiated Instruction in the Content Areas Research has demonstrated that the textbooks students use in middle school are written at or above grade level and are difficult for many students to comprehend Beck et al.
However, many content area teachers assume that their students can read and understand them without assistance. Unfortunately, this is not the case. Not all students entering middle school or high school have the reading proficiency needed to tackle reading and learning from assigned textbook chapters.
In fact, according to Reading Next: How Did We Get Here? Dispelling a Myth For years, primary- and middle-grade teachers have shaped their teaching practices around the following deeply rooted myth: In the early grades K-3reading instruction consists primarily of decoding and memorizing basic sight words.
During these years, comprehension has little to do with reading instruction.
Then quite suddenly, in the fourth grade, reading to learn begins, and students read to absorb information. Unfortunately, this myth has influenced reading instruction and beliefs in classrooms throughout this country and continues to do so.
The result is that all too often primary-grade reading instruction focuses on teaching decoding rather than combining decoding with comprehension strategy instruction. Then in fourth grade,teachers often emphasize absorbing content over explicit reading instruction.
David Pearson, Michael Pressley, and Nell Duke have shown that for all children, learning to read and reading to learn should be happening simultaneously and continuously. How can children suddenly shift from simply decoding words to drawing meaning from complex text about unfamiliar topics?
This shift cannot occur unless teachers model the process and teach the strategies that facilitate it. With research pointing the way, the teaching of comprehension has now emerged as a critical piece of learning to read. Researchers have demonstrated that good readers ofall ages use what they know and have experienced to understand information in texts.
As readers decode and connect what they know to a text, they construct meaning and new understandings. In addition, readers use strategies such as questioning, making connections, visualizing, and retelling to make sense of the text and cope with confusing passages and new words.
Content-area texts bombard students with new vocabulary and topics daily as students move from science to history to algebra. It is imperative, then, that content-area teachers teach the strategies readers use to comprehend nonfiction,then set aside time for students to practice strategies with materials they can read.
Differentiated Instruction in the Content Areas Most content-area teachers are passionate about their subjects and feel like Jim, a history teacher who tells me, "I love history and want every student to love it and learn as much as possible.
In the past, teachers have worked around this dilemma by presenting lectures and writing notes on the board.
However, these accommodations do not address the underlying problem of students being unable to access information in nonfiction materials.
The answer lies, instead, in providing differentiated instruction. We must identify what reading strategies our students need and then teach those strategies so students can move toward independence in reading.
We must offer them texts they can read, which means providing alternatives to the textbook. And we must give them choices in reading and assignments.To explore how instruction in questioning can enhance teachers' use of questions that promote comprehension and how teachers' instruction of students in such strategies can enhance their ability to comprehend content area texts independently, this paper looks at prereading, during-reading, and postreading questioning activities.
Content Area Reading | 2 Abstract This paper is going to go over key points about content area reading.
Some key points include how and when did this start, an explanation about content area reading, why and. A Research Synthesis A Review of the Current Research on Comprehension Instruction results by area of research interest follows the discussion of methodology.
Methodology 3 connected to the content of texts and students’ interests to increase motivation.) Reading comprehension. Content Area Reading | 2 Abstract This paper is going to go over key points about content area reading.
Some key points include how and when did this start, an . 3 Research-Based Reading Instruction Research-Based Content Area Reading Instruction As students move beyond the primary grades, the focus of their school lives. Content-Area Literacy.
Students will need advanced literacy skills — the ability to understand and analyze a variety of texts and to write and communicate persuasively — to succeed in life after high school.