Danna K, Griffin RW.
Most educational professionals accept that no single criterion can be used in isolation to accurately identify a gifted child. One of the criteria used in identification may be an IQ test score.
It is no longer accepted today in academic circles; however, it's still used by many school districts because it is simple and not entirely without merit.
Although a high IQ score is not the sole indicator of giftedness, usually if a student has a very high IQ, that is a significant indicator of high academic potential. IQ tests do not have validity for determining test-takers' rank order at higher IQ levels,  and are perhaps only effective at determining whether a student is gifted rather than distinguishing among levels of giftedness.
The Wechsler tests have a standard score ceiling of Today, the Wechsler child and adult IQ tests are by far the most commonly used IQ tests in hospitals, schools, and private psychological practice. The Stanford-Binet Third Revision Form L-M yields consistently higher numerical scores for the same test-taker than scores obtained on current tests.
This has prompted some authors on identification of gifted children to promote the Stanford-Binet form L-M, which has long been obsolete,  as the only test with a sufficient ceiling to identify the exceptionally and profoundly gifted, despite the Stanford-Binet L-M never having been normed on a representative national sample.
While many people believe giftedness is a strictly quantitative difference, measurable by IQ tests, some authors on the "experience of being" have described giftedness as a fundamentally different way of perceiving the world, which in turn affects every experience had by the gifted individual.
This view is doubted by some scholars who have closely studied gifted children longitudinally. While intelligence is extremely important in Western and some other cultures, such an emphasis is not consistent throughout the world.
For example, in Japan, there is more of a value placed on an individual's motivation and diligence. When Japanese students are given a task, they attribute success to factors like effort, whereas American students tend to attribute success to ability.
Similarly, when Japanese students fail, they refer the failure to lack of effort. On the other hand, American students believe failure is due to a lack of ability.
May perform poorly on paper-and-pencil tasks in an artificial lab setting. May perform poorly on a culturally biased test, especially if not their own.
Have test anxiety or suffer from stereotype threat. Many traits that demonstrate intellectual giftedness are identified across a multitude of cultures, such as: One frequently cited example of asynchronicity in early cognitive development is Albert Einsteinwho did not speak until the age of four, but whose later fluency and accomplishments belied this initial delay.
Psychologist and cognitive scientist Steven Pinker theorized that, rather than viewing Einstein's and other famously gifted late-talking individuals adult accomplishments as existing distinct from, or in spite of, his early language deficits, and rather than viewing Einstein's lingual delay itself as a " disorder ", it may be that Einstein's genius and his delay in speaking were developmentally intrinsic to one another.
Francoy Gagne's Differentiated Model of Giftedness and Talent DMGT is a developmental theory that distinguishes giftedness from talent, offering explanation on how outstanding natural abilities gifts develop into specific expert skills talents. Multiple intelligences theory[ edit ] Main article: Theory of multiple intelligences Multiple intelligences has been associated with giftedness or overachievement of some developmental areas Colangelo, The concept of multiple intelligences MI makes the field aware of additional potential strengths and proposes a variety of curricular methods.
Gardner argued that there are eight intelligences, or different areas in which people assimilate or learn about the world around them: Others consider the theory not to be sufficiently empirical. Identification of gifted students with MI is a challenge since there is no simple test to give to determine giftedness of MI.
Assessing by observation is potentially most accurate, but potentially highly subjective. MI theory can be applied to not only gifted students, but it can be a lens through which all students can be assessed.
This more global perspective may lead to more child-centered instruction and meet the needs of a greater number of children Colangelo, They may learn to read early and progress at the same level as normal children who are significantly older.
Gifted students also tend to demonstrate high reasoning ability, creativitycuriositya large vocabularyand an excellent memory. They can often master concepts with few repetitions. They may also be perfectionisticand frequently question authority.
Some have trouble relating to or communicating with their peers because of disparities in vocabulary size especially in the early yearspersonality, interests, and motivation.
As children, they may prefer the company of older children or adults. One gifted student may excel in solving logic problems yet be a poor speller.
Another may be able to read and write at a far above-average level yet have trouble with mathematics.Microsoft Powerpoint Bible,, (isbn , ean ), by Wempen F.
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