Related Critically discuss a classic experiment from the history of psychology e. What, if any, relevance does it have to the present day? He found that 65 per cent of the research subjects followed instructions from an experimenter and administered the highest voltage shock possible to a learner, even when they were uncomfortable in doing so Milgram, This finding contributed to theories in psychology.
He conducted an experiment focusing on the conflict between obedience to authority and personal conscience. Their defense often was based on " obedience " - that they were just following orders from their superiors.
The experiments began in Julya year after the trial of Adolf Eichmann in Jerusalem. Milgram devised the experiment to answer the question: Could it be that Eichmann and his million accomplices in the Holocaust were just following orders?
Could we call them all accomplices? Milgram wanted to investigate whether Germans were particularly obedient to authority figures as this was a common explanation for the Nazi killings in World War II.
Milgram selected participants for his experiment by newspaper advertising for male participants to take part in a study of learning at Yale University.
The learner a confederate called Mr. Wallace was taken into a room and had electrodes attached to his arms, and the teacher and researcher went into a room next door that contained an electric shock generator and a row of switches marked The stanley milgrim study essay 15 volts Slight Shock to volts Danger: Severe Shock to volts XXX.
Milgram was interested in researching how far people would go in obeying an instruction if it involved harming another person. Stanley Milgram was interested in how easily ordinary people could be influenced into committing atrocities, for example, Germans in WWII.
Participants were 40 males, aged between 20 and 50, whose jobs ranged from unskilled to professional, from the New Haven area. At the beginning of the experiment, they were introduced to another participant, who was a confederate of the experimenter Milgram.
Two rooms in the Yale Interaction Laboratory were used - one for the learner with an electric chair and another for the teacher and experimenter with an electric shock generator. Wallace was strapped to a chair with electrodes.
The teacher is told to administer an electric shock every time the learner makes a mistake, increasing the level of shock each time.
The learner gave mainly wrong answers on purposeand for each of these, the teacher gave him an electric shock. There were four prods and if one was not obeyed, then the experimenter Mr.
Williams read out the next prod, and so on. The experiment requires you to continue. It is absolutely essential that you continue.
You have no other choice but to continue.
All the participants continued to volts. All he did was alter the situation IV to see how this affected obedience DV. Ordinary people are likely to follow orders given by an authority figure, even to the extent of killing an innocent human being.
Obedience to authority is ingrained in us all from the way we are brought up. This response to legitimate authority is learned in a variety of situations, for example in the family, school, and workplace. I set up a simple experiment at Yale University to test how much pain an ordinary citizen would inflict on another person simply because he was ordered to by an experimental scientist.
The extreme willingness of adults to go to almost any lengths on the command of an authority constitutes the chief finding of the study and the fact most urgently demanding explanation.
The autonomous state — people direct their own actions, and they take responsibility for the results of those actions. The agentic state — people allow others to direct their actions and then pass off the responsibility for the consequences to the person giving the orders.
Milgram suggested that two things must be in place for a person to enter the agentic state: That is, they are seen as legitimate. The person being ordered about is able to believe that the authority will accept responsibility for what happens.
Agency theory says that people will obey an authority when they believe that the authority will take responsibility for the consequences of their actions. For example, when participants were reminded that they had responsibility for their own actions, almost none of them were prepared to obey.
In contrast, many participants who were refusing to go on did so if the experimenter said that he would take responsibility. Milgram Experiment Variations The Milgram experiment was carried out many times whereby Milgram varied the basic procedure changed the IV.
By doing this Milgram could identify which factors affected obedience the DV.This experiment demonstrates how authority can negatively influence one’s critical thinking skills.
In many cases during this experiment, the subjects were assigned their role and accepted the information given by authority without question or criticism, thus falling into the Stage 1 category of knowing.
Stanley Milgram’s Obedience experiment () is thought of as a ‘classic’ experiment in the history of psychology. It was conducted in response to the Nazi war trials where individuals claimed that they were ‘just following orders’.
One of the most famous studies of obedience in psychology was carried out by Stanley Milgram, a psychologist at Yale University. He conducted an experiment focusing on the conflict between obedience to authority and personal conscience. The Milgram Experiment Essay example Words | 5 Pages.
A researcher, Stanley Milgram, wondered how far individuals would go in following commands. In he set up a series of experiments. Describe the research methods used, together with the findings.
In Stanley Milgram conducted the classic study of obedience to authority. Pre-History. Rivers' great-grandmother was a house slave who listened to and memorized songs that the slaves sang in the fields while working. Her son, Rivers' grandfather, Marshall W.
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